Hedenström M, Wiklund S, Sundberg B, Edlund U
Visualization and interpretation of OPLS models based on 2D NMR data
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems: 2008 192:110-117

Abstract
Multivariate analysis on spectroscopic 1H NMR data is well established in metabolomics and other fields where the composition of complex samples is studied. However, biomarker identification can be hampered by overlapping resonances. 2D NMR data provides a more detailed “fingerprint” of the chemical structure and composition of the sample with greatly improved spectral resolution compared to 1H NMR data. In this report, we demonstrate a procedure for the construction of multivariate models based on frequency domain 2D NMR data where the loadings can be visualized as highly informative 2D loading spectra. This method is based on the analysis of raw spectral data without any need for peak picking or integration prior to analysis. Spectral features such as line widths and peak positions are thus retained. Hence, the loadings can be visualized and interpreted on a molecular level as pseudo 2D spectra in order to identify potential biomarkers. To demonstrate this strategy we have analyzed HSQC spectra acquired from populus phloem plant extracts originating from a set of designed experiments with OPLS regression.

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