Research in my group is focused on elucidating mechanisms leading to formation of nucleotide- sugars (especially UDP-sugars), which are direct precursors to polysaccharides (e.g. sucrose, cellulose, hemicellulose). The function of relevant enzymes is elucidated both in vivo, using transgenic plants, and by studying purified proteins. Structure/ function properties of key enzymes are investigated, using site-directed mutagenesis, domain deletion approaches, specific inhibitors, etc. In another project, involving studies on sugar effects on global gene expression, we dissect signaling roles of a given sugar from its metabolic function, identifying genes specifically regulated by a given sugar, and using bioinformatics/ functional genomics to define cis motifs responsible for gene regulation.

Leszek Kleczkowski 1150 UDP-sugars are used in hundreds of glycosylation reactions (e.g. those forming sucrose, cell wall polysaccharides, etc.), and they represent the most important precursors for biomass production in nature. Thus, mechanisms of UDP-sugar formation, together with selected glycosyltransferases, may represent primary targets for biotechnological approaches aiming at increased biomass production for needs of agriculture, forestry and other industries. We are studying both genes and proteins responsible for UDP-sugar production, including those for UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), sucrose synthase and, recently, UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase). Since sugars are essential for UDP-sugar synthesis, we also investigate sugar-mediated regulation of plant gene expression, using both cell culture and whole plants.

In vivo roles and function/structure studies on pyrophosphorylases
We are using transgenic plants with impaired expression of a given protein to elucidate its physiological role. Parameters studied include growth/development of transgenics, metabolite contents, physiological properties, co-expressed gene networks, etc. At the protein level, purified plant pyrophosphorylases are investigated with respect to molecular determinants of their substrate specificity and regulation, including effects of oligomer- ization and post-translational modifications.The enzymes differ in specificity for sugar and nucleotide portions of their substrates, nd may be involved in distinct metabolic pathways. Properties of the enzymes are modified via site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping. We are also searching for specific inhibitors of pyrophosphorylases, using a chemical library developed in Chemistry Dept. at Umeå Univ. Inhibitors will be used to study the role of the target protein in selected physiological/ developmental processes in plant tissues/ cells (reverse chemi- cal-genetics approach) and, possibly, as potential drugs against human protozoan pathogens (e.g. Leishmania, Trypanosoma).

Bild1 kl Bild2 Kleczkowski
Central role of UDP-glucose in primary sugar metabolism. Structures of plant UDP-sugar producing pyrophosphorylases (Kleczkowski et al. 2011).

Sugar signaling and regulation of gene expression
In this project, we aim to understand a sugar-dependent regu- lation of gene expression by characterizing target genes and the underlying mechanism(s) of the regulation, using both an in vitro Arabidopsis cell culture and whole plants. Using the cell culture, we study in detail the response of cells to short-term exposures to low concentrations of different sugar species (e.g. Suc, Glc, and Fru), quantifying the sugar-dependent changes in gene expres- sion by microarray and qPCR approaches. Potential signaling pathways that are involved in the regulation of identified early responsive target genes are then further investigated by the use of known signaling mutants of Arabidopsis, e.g. hexokinase lines. To understand the mechanism(s) underlying the regulation, we study the sugar-dependent expression of promoter::reporter genes. The reporter constructs contain defined cis-regulatory elements in their promoters, which are both synthetic as well as derived from native genes,and their expression is analyzed both in stably transformed cell cultures and whole plants.
sweden_greySvensk samanfattning

Publications list

  1. Thermodynamic buffering, stable non-equilibrium and establishment of the computable structure of plant metabolism
    Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018 Nov 13 [Epub ahead of print]
  2. The structure-activity relationship of the salicylimide derived inhibitors of UDP-sugar producing pyrophosphorylases
    Plant Signaling & Behavior 2018, 13:e1507406
  3. The glycerate and phosphorylated pathways of serine synthesis in plants: the branches of plant glycolysis linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism
    Frontiers in Plant Science 2018, 9: 318
  4. Substrate Specificity and Inhibitor Sensitivity of Plant UDP-Sugar-Producing Pyrophosphorylases
    Frontiers Plant Sciences 2017, 8:1610
  5. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of UDP-glucose and UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases for in vivo studies
    Plant J. 2017, 90(6):1093-1107
  6. Defense responses in aspen with altered pectin methylesterase activity reveal the hormonal inducers of tyloses
    Plant Physiol. 2017, 173(2):1409-1419
  7. The redox control of photorespiration: from biochemical and physiological aspects to biotechnological considerations
    Plant Cell Environ. 2017, 40 (4):553-569
  8. Sugar activation for production of nucleotide sugars as substrates for glycosyltransferases in plants
    J Appl Glycoscience 2015, 62(2):25-36
  9. Hexokinase 1 is required for glucose-induced repression of bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 in Arabidopsis
    Front Plant Sci. 2015, 6:525
  10. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium
    Front. Plant Sci. 2015, 6:10
  11. Functional Dissection of Sugar Signals Affecting Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
    PLoS One. 2014 Jun 20;9(6):e100312
  12. A luminescence-based assay of UDP-sugar producing pyrophosphorylases
    Anal. Methods, 2014, 6(1):57-61

  13. Decker D, Meng M, Gornicka A, Hofer A, Wilczynska M, Kleczkowski LA
    Substrate kinetics and substrate effects on the quaternary structure of barley UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    Phytochemistry 2012 79:39-45
  14. Kleczkowski LA, Geisler M, Fitzek E, Wilczynska M
    A common structural blueprint for plant UDP-sugar-producing pyrophosphorylases
    Biochemical Journal: 2011, 439:375–379
  15. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Magnesium and cell energetics in plants under anoxia
    Biochemical Journal: 2011, 437:373-379
  16. Kleczkowski LA, Decker D, Wilczynska M
    UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase: a new old mechanism for sugar activation
    Plant Physiology: 2011 156:3-10
  17. Granado-Yela C, Garcia-Verdugo C, Carrillo K, Rubio de Dasas R, Kleczkowski LA, Balaguer L
    Temporal matching among diurnal photosynthetic patterns within the crown of the evergreen sclerophyll Olea europaea L.
    Plant, Cell & Environment: 2011 34:800-810
  18. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Optimization of CO2 fixation in photosynthetic cells via thermodynamic buffering
    Biosystems: 2011 103:224-229
  19. Kleczkowski LA, Kunz S, Wilczynska M
    Mechanisms of UDP-glucose synthesis in plants
    Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences: 2010 29:191-203
  20. Meng M, Fitzek E, Gajowniczek A, Wilczynska M, Kleczkowski LA
    Domain-specific determinants of catalysis/substrate binding and the oligomerization status of barley UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics: 2009 1794:1734-1742
  21. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Metabolic systems maintain stable non-equilibrium via thermodynamic buffering

    BioEssays: 2009 31:1091-1099
  22. Meng M, Geisler M, Johansson H, Harholt J, Scheller HV, Mellerowicz E, Kleczkowski LA
    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is not rate limiting, but is essential in Arabidopsis
    Plant Cell Physiology: 2009 50: 998-1011
  23. Jiménez MD, Pardos M, Puértolas J, Kleczkowski LA, Parados JA
    Deep shade alters the acclimation response to moderate water stress in Quercus suber L.
    Forestry: 2009 82:285-298
  24. Timm S, Nunes-Nesi A, Pärnik T, Morgenthal K, Wienkoop S, Keerberg O, Weckwerth W, Kleczkowski LA, Fernie AR, Bauwe H
    A cytosolic pathway for the conversion of hydroxypyruvate to glycerate during photorespiration in Arabidopsis
    The Plant Cell: 2008 20:2848-2859
  25. Meng M, Wilczynska M, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular and kinetic characterization of two UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases, products of distinct genes, from Arabidopsis
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics: 2008 1784:967-972
  26. Meng M, Geisler M, Johansson H, Mellerowicz EJ, Karpinski S, Kleczkowski LA
    Differential tissue/organ-dependent expression of two sucrose- and cold-responsive genes for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Populus
    Gene: 2007 389:186-195
  27. Ciereszko I, Kleczkowski LA 
    Phosphate deficiency-dependent upregulation of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes is insensitive to ABA and ethylene status in Arabidopsis leaves.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum: 2006 28:387-393
  28. Geisler M, Kleczkowski LA, Karpinski S
    A universal algorithm for genome-wide in silicio identification of biologically significant gene promoter putative cis-regulatory-elements, identification of new elements for reactive oxygen species and sucrose signaling in Arabidopsis
    Plant J: 2006 45:384-398
  29. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Equilibration of adenylates in the mitochondrial intermembrane space maintains respiration and regulates cytosolic metabolism
    Journal Of Experimental Botany: 2006 57:2133-2141
  30. Geisler-Lee J, Geisler M, Coutinho PM, Segerman B, Nishikubo N, Takahashi J, Aspeborg H, Djerbi S, Master E, Andersson-Gunneras S, Sundberg B, Karpinski S, Teeri TT, Kleczkowski LA, Henrissat B, Mellerowicz EJ
    Poplar carbohydrate-active enzymes. Gene identification and expression analyses
    Plant Physiology: 2006 140:946-962
  31. Goulas E, Schubert M, Kieselbach T, Kleczkowski LA, Gardestrom P, Schroder W, Hurry V
    The chloroplast lumen and stromal proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana show differential sensitivity to short- and long-term exposure to low temperature
    Plant Journal: 2006 47:720-734
  32. Kleczkowski LA, Martz F, Wilczynska M 
    Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
    Phytochemistry: 2005 66:2815-2821
  33. Ciereszko I, Kleczkowski LA
    Expression of several genes involved in sucrose/starch metabolism as affected by different strategies to induce phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum: 2005 27:147-155
  34. Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Kleczkowski LA
    Interactive effects of phosphate deficiency, sucrose and light/dark conditions on gene expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphory lase in Arabidopsis
    Journal of Plant Physiology: 2005 162:343-353
  35. Geisler M, Wilczynska M, Karpinski S, Kleczkowski LA
    Toward a blueprint for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase structure/function properties: homology-modeling analyses
    Plant Mol Biol: 2004 56:783-794
  36. Kleczkowski LA, Geisler M, Ciereszko I, Johansson H
    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. An old protein with new tricks
    Plant Physiol: 2004 134:912-918
  37. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Membrane potential, adenylate levels and Mg2+ are interconnected via adenylate kinase equilibrium in plant cells
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics: 2003 1607:111-119
  38. Siedlecka A, Ciereszko I, Mellerowicz E, Martz Fo, Chen J, Kleczkowski LA
    The small subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( ApS) promoter mediates okadaic acid-sensitive uidA expression in starch-synthesizing tissues and cells in Arabidopsis
    Planta: 2003 217:184-192
  39. Ciereszko I, Kleczkowski LA
    Effects of phosphate deficiency and sugars on expression of rab18 in Arabidopsis: hexokinase-dependent and okadaic acid-sensitive transduction of the sugar signal
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Gene Structure and Expression: 2002 1579:43-49
  40. Ciereszko I, Kleczkowski LA
    Glucose and mannose regulate the expression of a major sucrose synthase gene in Arabidopsis via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 2002 40:907-911
  41. Johansson H, Sterky F, Amini B, Lundeberg J, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding poplar UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, a key gene of hemicellulose/pectin formation
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Gene Structure and Expression: 2002 1576:53-58
  42. Martz Fo, Wilczynska M, Kleczkowski LA
    Oligomerization status, with the monomer as active species, defines catalytic efficiency of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
    Biochem J: 2002 367:295-300
  43. Kleczkowski LA
    A new player in the starch field
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 2001 39:759-761
  44. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Implications of adenylate kinase-governed equilibrium of adenylates on contents of free magnesium in plant cells and compartments
    Biochem J: 2001 360:225-231
  45. Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Hurry V, Kleczkowski LA
    Phosphate status affects the gene expression, protein content and enzymatic activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wild-type and pho mutants of Arabidopsis
    Planta: 2001 212:598-605
  46. Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Kleczkowski LA
    Sucrose and light regulation of a cold-inducible UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene via a hexokinase-independent and abscisic acid-insensitive pathway in Arabidopsis
    Biochem J: 2001 354:67-72
  47. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
    Capacity for NADPH/NADP turnover in the cytosol of barley seed endosperm: The role of NADPH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 2000 38:747-753
  48. Kleczkowski LA
    Is leaf ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase an allosteric enzyme?
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology: 2000 1476:103-108
  49. Thorbjornsen T, Villand P, Ramstad VE, Kleczkowski LA, Olsen OA, Opsahl-Ferstad HG
    Nucleotide sequence of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (Accession No. AJ239130) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a gene involved in endosperm starch formation (PGR00-051)
    Plant Physiology: 2000 122:1457-1457
  50. Kleczkowski LA
    A phosphoglycerate to inorganic phosphate ratio is the major factor in controlling starch levels in chloroplasts via ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase regulation
    FEBS Lett: 1999 448:153-156
  51. Siedlecka A, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G, Kleczkowski LA, Krupa Z
    A relationship between carbonic anhydrase and rubisco in response to moderate cadmium stress during light activation of photosynthesis
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1999 54:759-763
  52. Krupa Z, Siedlecka A, Kleczkowski LA
    Cadmium-affected level of inorganic phosphate in rye leaves influences Rubisco subunits
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum: 1999 21:257-261
  53. Sterky F, Lundeberg J, Kleczkowski LA
    Cloning of a cDNA Encoding Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (Accession No. AF149116) From Cambium of Poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides). (PGR99-095)
    Plant Physiology: 1999 120:934-934
  54. Luo C, Kleczkowski LA
    Expression of barley ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Escherichia coli: processing and regulatory considerations
    Phytochemistry: 1999 50:209-214
  55. Kleczkowski LA, Sokolov LN, Luo C, Villand P
    Molecular cloning and spatial expression of an ApL1 cDNA for the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1999 54:353-358
  56. Igamberdiev AU, Bykova NV, Kleczkowski LA
    Origins and metabolism of formate in higher plants
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 1999 37:503-513
  57. Dejardin A, Sokolov LN, Kleczkowski LA
    Sugar/osmoticum levels modulate differential abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase genes in Arabidopsis
    Biochemical Journal: 1999 344:503-509
  58. Ito H, Sokolov LN, Kleczkowski LA, Okita TW
    The Arabidopsis thaliana ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit gene, adg2 (Accession No: AB022891). (PGR99-051)
    Plant Physiology: 1999 119:1568-1568
  59. Sterky F, Sievertzon M, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding a Cytosolic Form of Phosphoglucomutase (Accession No. AF097938) From Cambium of Poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) (PGR98-205)
    Plant Physiology: 1998 118:1535-1535
  60. Sokolov LN, Dejardin A, Kleczkowski LA
    Sugars and light/dark exposure trigger differential regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress)
    Biochemical Journal: 1998 336:681-687
  61. Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA 
    Glyoxylate metabolism during photorespiration - a cytosol connection.
    In Handbook of Photosynthesis, Pessarakli M. ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc: 1997, pp. 269-279
  62. Luo H, Dejardin A, Villand P, Doan DNP, Kleczkowski LA
    Differential processing of homologues of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) tissues
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1997 52:807-811
  63. Luo C, Dejardin A, Villand P, Kleczkowski LA
    Expression of homologues of barley ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in E-coli
    Plant Physiology: 1997 114:1215-1215
  64. Eimert K, Luo C, Dejardin A, Villand P, Thorbjornsen T, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular cloning and expression of the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves
    Gene: 1997 189:79-82
  65. Sokolov L, Dejardin A, Kleczkowski LA
    Sugar-mediated regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in Arabidopsis
    Plant Physiology: 1997 114:1294-1294
  66. Thorbjornsen T, Villand P, Kleczkowski LA, Olsen OA
    A single gene encodes two different transcripts for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit from barley (Hordeum vulgare)
    Biochem J: 1996 313:149-154
  67. Kleczkowski LA
    Back to the drawing board: Redefining starch synthesis in cereals
    Trends in Plant Science: 1996 1:363-364
  68. Eimert K, Villand P, Kilian A, Kleczkowski LA
    Cloning and characterization of several cDNAs for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) tissues
    Gene: 1996 170:227-232
  69. Eimert K, Villand P, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular characterization of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley
    Plant Physiology: 1996 111:119-119
  70. Olsen O-A, Brown R, Kalla R, Kleczkowski LA, Lemmon B, Linnestad C, Nielsen PS, Potter R, Shimamoto K, Thorbjørnsen T, Villand P 
    Developmental regulation of gene expression during barley endosperm formation.
    Journal of Plant Physiology: 1995 145:587-591
  71. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Eimert K
    A Possible Source of Ppi for the Sucrose to Starch Conversion in Cereal Seeds
    Plant Physiology: 1995 108:31-31
  72. Kwiatkowski BA, Zielinskakwiatkowska AG, Migdalski A, Kleczkowski LA, Wasilewska LD
    Cloning of 2 Cdnas Encoding Calnexin-Like and Calreticulin-Like Proteins from Maize (Zea-Mays) Leaves - Identification of Potential Calcium-Binding Domains
    Gene: 1995 165:219-222
  73. Kleczkowski LA
    Kinetics and Regulation of the Nad(P)H-Dependent Glyoxylate-Specific Reductase from Spinach Leaves
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1995 50:21-28
  74. Villand P, Kleczkowski LA
    Is there an alternative pathway for starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds?
    Zeitschrift für Naturforschung: 1994 49c:215-219
  75. Kilian A, Kleinhofs A, Villand P, Thorbjørnsen T, Olsen O-A, Kleczkowski LA
    Mapping of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes from barley.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics: 1994 87:869-871
  76. Kleczkowski LA
    Glucose Activation and Metabolism through Udp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Plants
    Phytochemistry: 1994 37:1507-1515
  77. Kleczkowski LA
    Inhibitors of Photosynthetic Enzymes/Carriers and Metabolism
    Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology: 1994 45:339-367
  78. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Olsen O-A 
    Hysteresis and reversible cold inactivation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley seed endosperm.
    Zeitschrift für Naturforschung: 1993  48c:457-460
  79. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Luthi E, Olsen OA, Preiss J
    Insensitivity of Barley Endosperm Adp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase to 3-Phosphoglycerate and Orthophosphate Regulation
    Plant Physiology: 1993 101:179-186
  80. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Preiss J, Olsen OA
    Kinetic mechanism and regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves
    J Biol Chem: 1993 268:6228-6233
  81. Villand P, Olsen OA, Kleczkowski LA
    Molecular Characterization of Multiple Cdna Clones for Adp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis-Thaliana
    Plant Molecular Biology: 1993 23:1279-1284
  82. Villand P, Olsen O-A, Kilian A, Kleczkowski LA
    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit cDNA from barley endosperm.
    Plant Physiology: 1992 100:1617-1618

  83. Kleczkowski LA, Edwards GE, Randall DD
    Effects of oxalate on the reduction of hydroxypyruvate and glyoxylate in leaves.
    Phytochemistry: 1992 31:51-54
  84. Villand P, Aalen R, Olsen OA, Luthi E, Lonneborg A, Kleczkowski LA
    Pcr Amplification and Sequences of Cdna Clones for the Small and Large Subunits of Adp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Tissues
    Plant Molecular Biology: 1992 19:381-389
  85. Givan CV, Kleczkowski LA
    The Enzymatic Reduction of Glyoxylate and Hydroxypyruvate in Leaves of Higher-Plants
    Plant Physiology: 1992 100:552-556
  86. Kleczkowski LA, Edwards GE
    A Low Temperature-Induced Reversible Transition between Different Kinetic Forms of Maize Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 1991 29:9-17
  87. Kleczkowski LA, Randall DD
    Equilibration of Adenylates by Maize Leaf Adenylate Kinase - Effects of Magnesium on Apparent and True Equilibria
    Journal of Experimental Botany: 1991 42:537-540
  88. Kleczkowski LA, Randall DD, Edwards GE
    Oxalate as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Spinach (Spinacia-Oleracea) Leaf Nadph-Dependent Hydroxypyruvate Reductase
    Biochemical Journal: 1991 276:125-127
  89. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Lonneborg A, Olsen OA, Luthi E
    Plant Adp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase - Recent Advances and Biotechnological Perspectives (a Review)
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1991 46:605-612
  90. Kleczkowski LA, Randall DD, Zahler WL 
    Adenylate kinase from maize leaves: true substrates, inhibition by P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, and kinetic mechanism.
    Zeitschrift für Naturforschung: 1990 45c:607-613
  91. Kleczkowski LA, Edwards GE, Blackwell RD, Lea PJ, Givan CV 
    Enzymology of the reduction of hydroxypyruvate and glyoxylate in a mutant of barley lacking peroxisomal hydroxypyruvate reductase.
    Plant Physiology: 1990 94:819-825
  92. Kleczkowski LA, Edwards GE 
    Hysteresis and reversible cold inactivation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.
    Zeitschrift für Naturforschung: 1990 45c:42-46