Plants need a flexible metabolism in order to respond to the variable environmental conditions that they experience. We investigate leaf metabolism with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the metabolic pathways involved, their regulation and compartmentation.We focus in particular on the interactions between mitochondria and chloroplasts in two sub-projects: (1) the interaction of respiratory and photosyn- thetic metabolic pathways in photosynthetically active cells and (2) the involvement of mitochondria and respiratory metabolism in the process of leaf senescence.

Per Gardestrom 1150Respiration/photorespiration
Mitochondria fulfill essential functions in the energy metabo- lism of all cells. In leaves, mitochondrial activities in the light are closely related to photosynthetic metabolism, and many of the interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria are coupled to photorespiration. In the light, a major function for leaf mitochondria is oxidation of glycine in the photorespiratory glycolate pathway.The flux through this pathway is considerable and involves redox reactions in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria that strongly affect the redox situation of the cell. As a consequence, the TCA cycle appears to be reorganized in the light, so that it changes from being the main source of energy in the dark to providing a flexible mechanism that enables the cell to sustain optimal photosynthesis.This highlights the fact that the cell functions as a unit. Current studies on mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases, alternative dehydrogenases and C/N relations aim to further explore the contributions of mitochondria to photosynthetic metabolism.

Gardestrom bild1Rapid senescence is induced by darkening a few leaves while the rest of the plant remain in light (A). After six to eight days in darkness leaves have lost most of their chlorophyll (B) and the cytoskeleton is degraded (C-E). Confocal microscopy picture of a leaf cell (top left) Chloroplasts are red and mitochondria green.

Gardestrom bild3Hypothetical interactions between acclimation and senescenceLeaf senescence is an active and closely controlled process in which nutrients are reallocated from decaying leaves to other plant organs. Mitochondria and respiratory metabolism can contribute to this process by providing ATP and carbon skeletons.We use Arabidopsis as a model to study both natural (age-induced) and dark-induced leaf senescence. In particular we have used an experimental system where individual leaves are darkened (IDL) and compared the effect to darkening of whole plants (DP).The IDL treatment leads to fast and syn- chronous senescence with loss of photosynthetic capacity due to chloroplast degradation and dismantling of the microtubular network (see picture). However, mitochondrial integrity and functions are maintained. In DP, chloroplasts and microtubules are maintained much longer whereas number of mitochondria decrease. Based on metabolomic and transcriptomic results, we suggest that leaves from DP enter a stand-by metabolic state of low respiratory activity. In contrast, IDL show high respiratory activity with active mitochondrial contribution to the retrieval of nutrients from senescing leaves. Not only darkness but also very low light can induce leaf senescence. However, here also light acclimation will contribute and induction of the senes- cence response will only occur at light intensities below the light compensation point, although at a much slower rate than in complete darkness. To further study the process we have preformed a mutant screen to isolate mutants with a delayed senescence phenotype (functional stay-green). In ongoing experiments we aim to elucidate the mechanism for induction of leaf senescence and the metabolic adjustments related to the process.
sweden_greySvensk samanfattning

playExpand Full Publications List

Publications list

  1. ATP compartmentation in plastids and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by fluorescent protein sensing
    PNAS 2018, 115(45):E10778-E10787
  2. Nitrogen Source Dependent Changes in Central Sugar Metabolism Maintain Cell Wall Assembly in Mitochondrial Complex I-Defective frostbite1 and Secondarily Affect Programmed Cell Death
    Int J Mol Sci. 2018, 19(8)
  3. Darkened leaves use different metabolic strategies for senescence and survival
    Plant Physiol. 2018; 177 (1):132-150
  4. Dissecting the metabolic role of mitochondria during developmental leaf senescence
    Plant Physiol. 2016, 172 (4):2132-2153
  5. The origin of cytosolic ATP in photosynthetic cells
    Physiol Plant. 2016, 157(3):367-379
  6. Reduced mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity has a strong effect on photorespiratory metabolism as revealed by 13C labelling
    J Exp Bot. 2016, 67(10):3123-3135
  7. The redox control of photorespiration: from biochemical and physiological aspects to biotechnological considerations
    Plant Cell Environ. 2017, 40 (4):553-569
  8. Hexokinase 1 is required for glucose-induced repression of bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 in Arabidopsis
    Front Plant Sci. 2015, 6:525
  9. In comparison with nitrate nutrition, ammonium nutrition increases growth of the frostbite1 Arabidopsis mutant
    Plant Cell Environ. 2015, 38(1):224-37
  10. Activity of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Plants is Stimulated in the Presence of Malate
    MITOCHONDRION 2014, 19:184-190
  11. In response to partial plant shading, the lack of phytochrome A does not directly induce leaf senescence but alters the fine-tuning of chlorophyll biosynthesis
    J. Exp. Bot. 2014, 65(14):4037-4049

  12. The function of glycine decarboxylase complex is optimized to maintain high photorespiratory flux via buffering of its reaction products
    MITOCHONDRION 2014, 19:357-364
  13. Long-term ammonium nutrition of Arabidopsis increases the extrachloroplastic NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level in leaves but does not impair photosynthetic capacity
    Plant Cell Environ. 2013; 36(11):2034-45

  14. Brouwer B, Ziolkowska A, Bagard M, Keech O, Gardestrom P
    The impact of light intensity on shade-induced leaf senescence
    Plant, Cell & Environment Jan 2012 35(6):1084-98
  15. Keerberg O, Ivanova H, Keerberg H, Pärnik T, Talts P, Gardeström P
    Quantitative analysis of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in protoplasts and intact leaves of barley. Determination of carbon fluxes and pool sizes of metabolites in different cellular compartments
    Biosystems: 2010 103:291-301
  16. Keech O, Pesquet E, Gutierrez L, Ahad A, Bellini C, Smith SM, Gardeström P
    Leaf senescence Is accompanied by an early disruption of the microtubule network in Arabidopsis
    Plant Physiology: 2010 154:1710-1720
  17. Tomaz T, Bagard M, Pracharoenwattana I, Lindén P, Lee CP, Carroll AI, Ströher E, Smith SM, Gardeström P, Millar AH
    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase lowers leaf respiration and alters photorespiration and plant growth in Arabidopsis
    Plant Physiology: 2010 154: 1143-1157
  18. Szal B, Jastrzebska A, Kulka M, Lesniak K, Podgorska A, Parnik T, Ivanova H, Keerberg O, Gardeström P,  Rychter AM
    Influence of mitochondrial genome rearrangement on cucumber leaf carbon and nitrogen metabolism
    Planta: 2010 232:1371-1382
  19. Renberg L, Johansson AI, Shutova T, Stenlund H, Aksmann A, Raven JA, Gardeström P, Moritz T, Samuelsson G
    A metabolomic approach to study major metabolite changes during acclimation to limiting CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Plant Physiology: 2010 154:187-196
  20. Sani M-A, Keech O, Gardeström P, Dufourc EJ, Gröbner G
    Magic-angle phosphorus NMR of functional mitochondria: in situ monitoring of lipid response under apoptotic-like stress
    The FASEB Journal: 2009 23:2872-2878
  21. Szal B, Dabrowska Z, Malmberg G, Gardeström P, Rychter AM
    Changes in energy status of leaf cells as a consequence of mitochondrial genome rearrangement
    Planta: 2008 227:697-706
  22. Keech O, Pesquet E, Ahad A, Askne A, Nordvall D, Vodnala SM, Tuominen H, Hurry V, Dizengremel P, Gardeström P
    The different fates of mitochondria and chloroplasts during dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis leaves
    Plant, Cell and Environment: 2007 30:1523-1534
  23. Moller IM, Gardeström P
    Plant mitochondria - more active than ever!
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2007 129:1-5
  24. Gama F, Keech O, Eymery F, Finkemeier I, Gelhaye E, Gardeström P, Dietz KJ, Rey P, Jacquot J-P, Rouhier N
    The mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from poplar
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2007 129:196-206
  25. Covey-Crump EM, Bykova NV, Affourtit C, Hoefnagel MHN, Gardeström P, Atkin OK
    Temperature-dependent changes in respiration rates and redox poise of the ubiquinone pool in protoplasts and isolated mitochondria of potato leaves
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2007 129:175-184
  26. Ivanov AG, Krol M, Sveshnikov D, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P, Hurry V, Oquist G, Huner NPA
    Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus in cortical bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine
    Planta: 2006 223:1165-1177
  27. Igamberdiev AU, Shen TY, Gardestrom P
    Function of mitochondria during the transition of barley protoplasts from low light to high light
    Planta: 2006 224:196-204
  28. Goulas E, Schubert M, Kieselbach T, Kleczkowski LA, Gardestrom P, Schroder W, Hurry V
    The chloroplast lumen and stromal proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana show differential sensitivity to short- and long-term exposure to low temperature
    Plant Journal: 2006 47:720-734
  29. Persson J, Gardestrom P, Nasholm T
    Uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources by Pinus sylvestris
    Journal of Experimental Botany: 2006 57:2651-2659
  30. Hurry V, Igamberdiev AU, Keerberg O, Pärnik T, Atkin OK, Zaragoza-Castells J, Gardeström P
    Respiration in photosynthetic cells: Gas exchange components, interactions with photorespiration and the operation of mitochondria in the light
    In: Plant Respiration: From Cell to Ecosystem, Lambers H and Ribas-Carbo M, eds. Springer, pp. 43-61
  31. Keskitalo J, Bergquist G, Gardestrom P, Jansson S
    A cellular timetable of autumn senescence
    Plant Physiol: 2005 139:1635-1648
  32. Bykova NV, Keerberg O, Parnik T, Bauwe H, Gardestrom P
    Interaction between photorespiration and respiration in transgenic potato plants with antisense reduction in glycine decarboxylase
    Planta: 2005 222:130-140
  33. Gardestrom P, Hurry V
    New in Physiologia Plantarum
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2005 124:1-3
  34. Keech O, Dizengremel P, Gardestrom P
    Preparation of leaf mitochondria from Arabidopsis thaliana
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2005 124:403-409
  35. Baba K, Schmidt J, Ruiz AE, Villarejo A, Shiina T, Gardestrom P, Sane AP, Bhalerao RP
    Organellar gene transcription and early seedling development are affected in the rpoT,2 mutant of Arabidopsis
    Plant J: 2004 38:38-48
  36. Igamberdiev AU, Mikkelsen TN, Ambus P, Bauwe H, Lea PJ, Gardestrom P
    Photorespiration contributes to stomatal regulation and carbon isotope fractionation: a study with barley, potato and Arabidopsis plants deficient in glycine decarboxylase
    Photosynthesis Research: 2004 81:139-152
  37. Talts P, Parnik T, Gardestrom P, Keerberg O
    Respiratory acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves at low temperature
    Journal of Plant Physiology: 2004 161:573-579
  38. Strand A, Foyer CH, Gustafsson P, Gardestrom P, Hurry V
    Altering flux through the sucrose biosynthesis pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana modifies photosynthetic acclimation at low temperatures and the development of freezing tolerance
    Plant Cell and Environment: 2003 26:523-535
  39. Bhalerao R, Keskitalo J, Sterky F, Erlandsson R, Bjorkbacka H, Birve SJ, Karlsson J, Gardestrom P, Gustafsson P, Lundeberg J, Jansson S
    Gene expression in autumn leaves
    Plant Physiol: 2003 131:430-442
  40. Igamberdiev AU, Gardestrom P
    Regulation of NAD- and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases by reduction levels of pyridine nucleotides in mitochondria and cytosol of pea leaves
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics: 2003 1606:117-125
  41. Gardestrom P
    What's new in photosynthesis
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2003 119:311-311
  42. Hurry V, Druart N, Cavaco A, Gardeström P, Strand A
    Photosynthesis at low temperatures: a case study with Arabidopsis
    In Plant Cold Hardiness: gene regulation and genetic engineering. (P.H. Li & E.T. Palva, eds). 2002, pp161-180
  43. Romanowska E, Igamberdiev AU, Parys E, Gardestrom P
    Stimulation of respiration by Pb2+ in detached leaves and mitochondria of C-3 and C-4 plants
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2002 116:148-154
  44. Savitch LV, Barker-Astrom J, Ivanov AG, Hurry V, Oquist G, Huner NPA, Gardestrom P
    Cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana results in incomplete recovery of photosynthetic capacity, associated with an increased reduction of the chloroplast stroma
    Planta: 2001 214:295-303
  45. Igamberdiev AU, Ivlev AA, Bykova NV, Threlkeld CN, Lea PJ, Gardestrom P
    Decarboxylation of glycine contributes to carbon isotope fractionation in photosynthetic organisms
    Photosynth Res: 2001 67:177-184
  46. Heineke D, Bykova N, Gardestrom P, Bauwe H
    Metabolic response of potato plants to an antisense reduction of the P-protein of glycine decarboxylase
    Planta: 2001 212:880-887
  47. Igamberdiev AU, Romanowska E, Gardestrom P
    Photorespiratory flux and mitochondrial contribution to energy and redox balance of barley leaf protoplasts in the light and during light-dark transitions
    Journal of Plant Physiology: 2001 158:1325-1332
  48. Ivanov AG, Sane PV, Zeinalov Y, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P, Huner NPA, Oquist G
    Photosynthetic electron transport adjustments in overwintering Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
    Planta: 2001 213:575-585
  49. Igamberdiev AU, Bykova NV, Lea PJ, Gardestrom P
    The role of photorespiration in redox and energy balance of photosynthetic plant cells: A study with a barley mutant deficient in glycine decarboxylase
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2001 111:427-438
  50. Strand A, Zrenner R, Trevanion S, Stitt M, Gustafsson P, Gardestrom P
    Decreased expression of two key enzymes in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway, cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase, has remarkably different consequences for photosynthetic carbon metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana
    Plant Journal: 2000 23:759-770
  51. Siedlecka A, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G, Kleczkowski LA, Krupa Z
    A relationship between carbonic anhydrase and rubisco in response to moderate cadmium stress during light activation of photosynthesis
    Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-a Journal of Biosciences: 1999 54:759-763
  52. Strand A, Hurry V, Henkes S, Huner N, Gustafsson P, Gardestrom P, Stitt M
    Acclimation of Arabidopsis leaves developing at low temperatures. Increasing cytoplasmic volume accompanies increased activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle and in the sucrose-biosynthesis pathway
    Plant Physiology: 1999 119:1387-1397
  53. Bykova NV, Rasmusson AG, Igamberdiev AU, Gardestrom P, Moller IM
    Two separate transhydrogenase activities are present in plant mitochondria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun: 1999 265:106-111
  54. Eriksson M, Villand P, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Induction and regulation of expression of a low-CO2-induced mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Plant Physiology: 1998 116:637-641
  55. Igamberdiev AU, Hurry V, Kromer S, Gardestrom P
    The role of mitochondrial electron transport during photosynthetic induction. A study with barley (Hordeum vulgare) protoplasts incubated with rotenone and oligomycin
    Physiologia Plantarum: 1998 104:431-439
  56. Strand A, Hurry V, Gustafsson P, Gardestrom P
    Development of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves at low temperatures releases the suppression of photosynthesis and photosynthetic gene expression despite the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates
    Plant Journal: 1997 12:605-614
  57. Igamberdiev AU, Bykova NV, Gardestrom P
    Involvement of cyanide-resistant and rotenone-insensitive pathways of mitochondrial electron transport during oxidation of glycine in higher plants
    Febs Letters: 1997 412:265-269
  58. Siedlecka A, Krupa Z, Samuelsson G, Oquist G, Gardestrom P
    Primary carbon metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris plants under Cd/Fe interaction
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: 1997 35:951-957
  59. Igamberdiev AU, Zhou GQ, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P
    Respiration of barley protoplasts before and after illumination
    Physiologia Plantarum: 1997 99:15-22
  60. Eriksson M, Karlsson J, Ramazanov Z, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Discovery of an algal mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase: Molecular cloning and characterization of a low-CO2-induced polypeptide in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: 1996 93:12031-12034
  61. Hurry V, Keerberg O, Parnik T, Oquist G, Gardestrom P
    Effect of Cold Hardening on the Components of Respiratory Decarboxylation in the Light and in the Dark in Leaves of Winter Rye
    Plant Physiol: 1996 111:713-719
  62. Gardestrom P
    Interactions between mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics: 1996 1275:38-40
  63. Kromer S, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Regulation of the supply of cytosolic oxaloacetate for mitochondrial metabolism via phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase in barley leaf protoplasts .1. The effect of covalent modification on PEPC activity, pH response, and kinetic properties
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects: 1996 1289:343-350
  64. Kromer S, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Regulation of the supply of oxaloacetate for mitochondrial metabolism via phospho enolpyruvate carboxylase in barley leaf protoplasts .2. Effects of metabolites on PEPC activity at different activation states of the protein
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects: 1996 1289:351-361
  65. Hurry VM, Strand A, Tobiaeson M, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
    Cold Hardening of Spring and Winter-Wheat and Rape Results in Differential-Effects on Growth, Carbon Metabolism, and Carbohydrate Content
    Plant Physiology: 1995 109:697-706
  66. Hurry VM, Keerberg O, Parnik T, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
    Cold-Hardening Results in Increased Activity of Enzymes Involved in Carbon Metabolism in Leaves of Winter Rye (Secale-Cereale L)
    Planta: 1995 195:554-562
  67. Eriksson M, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Mitochondria from Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii
    Plant Physiology: 1995 107:479-483
  68. Hurry V, Tobiaeson M, Kromer S, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
    Mitochondria Contribute to Increased Photosynthetic Capacity of Leaves of Winter Rye (Secale-Cereale L) Following Cold-Hardening
    Plant Cell and Environment: 1995 18:69-76
  69. Gardestrom P, Lernmark U
    The Contribution of Mitochondria to Energetic Metabolism in Photosynthetic Cells
    Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes: 1995 27:415-421
  70. Gardestrom P
    Atp Synthesis During Photosynthetic Induction Studied with a Very High Time Resolution
    Biologicheskie Membrany: 1994 11:283-288
  71. Lernmark U, Gardestrom P
    Distribution of Pyruvate-Dehydrogenase Complex Activities between Chloroplasts and Mitochondria from Leaves of Different Species
    Plant Physiology: 1994 106:1633-1638
  72. Karlsson J, Ramazanov Z, Hiltonen T, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Effect of Vanadate on Photosynthesis and the Atp Adp Ratio in Low-Co2-Adapted Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii Cells
    Planta: 1994 192:46-51
  73. Hurry VM, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
    Effects of a Short-Term Shift to Low-Temperature and of Long-Term Cold Hardening on Photosynthesis and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase and Sucrose-Phosphate Synthase Activity in Leaves of Winter Rye (Secale-Cereale L)
    Plant Physiology: 1994 106:983-990
  74. Kromer S, Lernmark U, Gardestrom P
    In-Vivo Mitochondrial Pyruvate-Dehydrogenase Activity, Studied by Rapid Fractionation of Barley Leaf Protoplasts
    Journal of Plant Physiology: 1994 144:485-490
  75. Gardestrom P, Petit PX, Moller IM
    Purification and Characterization of Plant-Mitochondria and Submitochondrial Particles
    Methods in Enzymology: 1994 228:424-431
  76. Borodin V, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    The Effect of Light Quality on the Induction of Efficient Photosynthesis under Low Co2 Conditions in Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii and Chlorella-Pyrenoidosa
    Physiologia Plantarum: 1994 92:254-260
  77. Sitbon F, Edlund A, Gardestrom P, Olsson O, Sandberg G
    Compartmentation of Indole- 3- Acetic- Acid Metabolism in Protoplasts Isolated from Leaves of Wild- Type and Iaa- Overproducing Transgenic Tobacco Plants
    Planta: 1993 191:274-279
  78. Gardestrom P
    Metabolite Levels in the Chloroplast and Extrachloroplast Compartments of Barley Leaf Protoplasts During the Initial Phase of Photosynthetic Induction
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta: 1993 1183:327-332
  79. Kromer S, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P
    Mitochondrial Contribution to Photosynthetic Metabolism - a Study with Barley (Hordeum-Vulgare L) Leaf Protoplasts at Different Light Intensities and Co2 Concentrations
    Plant Physiology: 1993 102:947-955
  80. Pawlik B, Skowronski T, Ramazanow Z, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Ph-Dependent Cadmium Transport Inhibits Photosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis-Aquatilis
    Environmental and Experimental Botany: 1993 33:331-337
  81. Hurry VM, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
    Reduced Sensitivity to Photoinhibition Following Frost-Hardening of Winter Rye Is Due to Increased Phosphate Availability
    Planta: 1993 190:484-490
  82. Wigge B, Kromer S, Gardestrom P
    The Redox Levels and Subcellular-Distribution of Pyridine-Nucleotides in Illuminated Barley Leaf Protoplasts Studied by Rapid Fractionation
    Physiologia Plantarum: 1993 88:10-18
  83. Valerio M, Haraux F, Gardestrom P, Diolez P
    Tissue-Specificity of the Regulation of Atp Hydrolysis by Isolated Plant-Mitochondria
    Febs Letters: 1993 318:113-117
  84. Kromer S, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P
    Mitochondrial Contribution to Photosynthetic Metabolism at Different Light Intensities and Co2 Concentrations in Barley Leaf Protoplasts
    Photosynthesis Research: 1992 34:198-198
  85. Lernmark U, Henricson D, Wigge B, Gardestrom P
    Glycine Oxidation in Mitochondria Isolated from Light Grown and Etiolated Plant-Tissue
    Physiologia Plantarum: 1991 82:339-344
  86. Wingsle G, Gardestrom P, Hallgren JE, Karpinski S
    Isolation, Purification, and Subcellular-Localization of Isozymes of Superoxide-Dismutase from Scots Pine (Pinus-Sylvestris L) Needles
    Plant Physiology: 1991 95:21-28
  87. Petit PX, Gardestrom P, Rasmusson AG, Moller IM
    Properties of Submitochondrial Particles from Plant-Mitochondria - Generation, Surface Characteristics and Nad(P)H Oxidation
    Plant Science: 1991 78:177-183
  88. Sundblad LG, Samuelsson G, Wigge B, Gardestrom P
    Luminescence Decay Kinetics in Relation to Quenching and Stimulation of Dark Fluorescence from High and Low Co2 Adapted Cells of Scenedesmus-Obliquus and Chlamydomonas-Reinhardtii
    Photosynthesis Research: 1990 23:269-282
  89. Palmqvist K, Ramazanov ZM, Gardestrom P, Samuelsson G
    Mechanisms of Adaptation of Microalgae to Conditions of Carbon-Dioxide Limitation of Photosynthesis - Possible Role of Carbonic-Anhydrase
    Soviet Plant Physiology: 1990 37:680-686
  90. Bligny R, Gardestrom P, Roby C, Douce R
    P-31 Nmr-Studies of Spinach Leaves and Their Chloroplasts
    Journal of Biological Chemistry: 1990 265:1319-1326
  91. Sandberg G, Gardestrom P, Sitbon F, Olsson O
    Presence of Indole- 3- Acetic- Acid in Chloroplasts of Nicotiana- Tabacum and Pinus- Sylvestris
    Planta: 1990 180:562-568