Pyrophosphate as an alternative energy currency in plants
Biochem J. 2021, 478(8):1515-1524
Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA

Abstract
In the conditions of [Mg2+] elevation that occur, in particular, under low oxygen stress and are the consequence of the decrease in [ATP] and increase in [ADP] and [AMP], pyrophosphate (PPi) can function as an alternative energy currency in plant cells. In addition to its production by various metabolic pathways, PPi can be synthesized in the combined reactions of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) by so-called PK/PPDK substrate cycle, and in the reverse reaction of membrane-bound H+-pyrophosphatase, which uses the energy of electrochemical gradients generated on tonoplast and plasma membrane. The PPi can then be consumed in its active forms of MgPPi and Mg2PPi by PPi-utilizing enzymes, which require an elevated [Mg2+]. This ensures a continuous operation of glycolysis in the conditions of suppressed ATP synthesis, keeping metabolism energy efficient and less dependent on ATP.

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