EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 and EARLY BUD-BREAK 3 control resumption of poplar growth after winter dormancy
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 18;12(1):1123
Azeez A, Zhao YC, Singh RK, Yordanov YS, Dash M, Miskolczi P, Stojkovič K, Strauss SH, Bhalerao RP, Busov VB

Abstract
Bud-break is an economically and environmentally important process in trees and shrubs from boreal and temperate latitudes, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that two previously reported transcription factors, EARLY BUD BREAK 1 (EBB1) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-Like (SVL) directly interact to control bud-break. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break, whereas SVL is a negative regulator of bud-break. EBB1 directly and negatively regulates SVL expression. We further report the identification and characterization of the EBB3 gene. EBB3 is a temperature-responsive, epigenetically-regulated, positive regulator of bud-break that provides a direct link to activation of the cell cycle during bud-break. EBB3 is an AP2/ERF transcription factor that positively and directly regulates CYCLIND3.1 gene. Our results reveal the architecture of a putative regulatory module that links temperature-mediated control of bud-break with activation of cell cycle.

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