The RALF1-FERONIA interaction modulates endocytosis to mediate control of root growth in Arabidopsis
Development. 2020, 147(13):dev189902
Yu M, Li R, Cui Y, Chen W, Li B, Zhang X, Bu Y, Cao Y, Xing J, Jewaria PK, Li X, Bhalerao R, Yu F, Lin J

Abstract
The interaction between the receptor-like kinase (RLK) FERONIA (FER) and the secreted peptide Rapid Alkalinization Factor 1 (RALF1) is vital for development and stress responses in Arabidopsis Ligand-induced membrane dynamics affect the function of several RLKs, but the effects of the RALF1-FER interaction on the dynamics of FER and the ensuing effects on its functionality are poorly understood. Here, we show that RALF1 modulated the dynamics and partitioning of FER-GFP at the plasma membrane (PM). Moreover, FER was internalized by both clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) under steady state conditions. After RALF1 treatment, FER-GFP internalization was primarily enhanced via the CME pathway, raising FER-GFP levels in the vacuole. RALF1 treatment also modulated trafficking of other PM proteins such as PIN2-GFP and BRI1-GFP, increasing their vacuolar levels by enhancing their internalization. Importantly, blocking CME attenuated RALF1-mediated root growth inhibition independently of RALF1-induced early signaling, suggesting that the RALF1 can also exert its effects via the CME pathway. These findings reveal that the RALF1-FER interaction modulates plant growth and development and this may also involve endocytosis of PM proteins.

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