Interplay between Cell Wall and Auxin Mediates the Control of Differential Cell Elongation during Apical Hook Development
Curr Biol. 2020, 30(9):1733+

Aryal B, Jonsson K, Baral A, Sancho-Andres G, Routier-Kierzkowska AL, Kierzkowski D, Bhalerao RP

Abstract

Differential growth plays a crucial role during morphogenesis [1-3]. In plants, development occurs within mechanically connected tissues, and local differences in cell expansion lead to deformations at the organ level, such as buckling or bending [4, 5]. During early seedling development, bending of hypocotyl by differential cell elongation results in apical hook structure that protects the shoot apical meristem from being damaged during emergence from the soil [6, 7]. Plant hormones participate in apical hook development, but not how they mechanistically drive differential growth [8]. Here, we present evidence of interplay between hormonal signals and cell wall in auxin-mediated differential cell elongation using apical hook development as an experimental model. Using genetic and cell biological approaches, we show that xyloglucan (a major primary cell wall component) mediates asymmetric mechanical properties of epidermal cells required for hook development. The xxt1 xxt2 mutant, deficient in xyloglucan [9], displays severe defects in differential cell elongation and hook development. Analysis of xxt1 xxt2 mutant reveals a link between cell wall and transcriptional control of auxin transporters PINFORMEDs (PINs) and AUX1 crucial for establishing the auxin response maxima required for preferential repression of elongation of the cells on the inner side of the hook. Genetic evidence identifies auxin response factor ARF2 as a negative regulator acting downstream of xyloglucan-dependent control of hook development and transcriptional control of polar auxin transport. Our results reveal a crucial feedback process between the cell wall and transcriptional control of polar auxin transport, underlying auxin-dependent control of differential cell elongation in plants.

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