Functional, Structural and Biochemical Features of Plant Serinyl-Glutathione Transferases
Front. Plant Sci., 22 May 2019
Sylvestre-Gonon E, Law SR, Schwartz M, Robe K, Keech O, Didierjean C, Dubos C, Rouhier N, Hecker A

Abstract:
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) belong to a ubiquitous multigenic family of enzymes involved in diverse biological processes including xenobiotic detoxification and secondary metabolism. A canonical GST is formed by two domains, the N-terminal one adopting a thioredoxin (TRX) fold and the C-terminal one an all-helical structure. The most recent genomic and phylogenetic analysis based on this domain organization allowed the classification of the GST family into 14 classes in terrestrial plants. These GSTs are further distinguished based on the presence of the ancestral cysteine (Cys- GSTs) present in TRX family proteins or on its substitution by a serine (Ser-GSTs). Cys-GSTs catalyze the reduction of dehydroascorbate and deglutathionylation reactions whereas Ser-GSTs catalyze glutathione conjugation reactions and eventually have peroxidase activity, both activities being important for stress tolerance or herbicide detoxification. Through non-catalytic, so-called ligandin properties, numerous plant GSTs also participate in the binding and transport of small heterocyclic ligands such as flavonoids including anthocyanins, and polyphenols. So far, this function has likely been underestimated compared to the other documented roles of GSTs. In this review, we compiled data concerning the known enzymatic and structural properties as well as the biochemical and physiological functions associated to plant GSTs having a conserved serine in their active site.
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