Transcriptional induction of cell wall remodelling genes is coupled to microtubule-driven growth isotropy at the shoot apex in Arabidopsis
Development. 2018, 145(11)
Armezzani A, Abad U, Ali O, Andres Robin A, Vachez L, Larrieu A, Mellerowicz EJ, Taconnat L, Battu V, Stanislas T, Liu M, Vernoux T, Traas J, Sassi M

Abstract
The shoot apical meristem of higher plants continuously generates new tissues and organs through complex changes in growth rates and directions of its individual cells. Cell growth, which is driven by turgor pressure, largely depends on the cell walls, which allow cell expansion through synthesis and structural changes. A previous study revealed a major contribution of wall isotropy in organ emergence, through the disorganization of cortical microtubules. We show here that this disorganization is coupled with the transcriptional control of genes involved in wall remodelling. Some of these genes are induced when microtubules are disorganized and cells shift to isotropic growth. Mechanical modelling shows that this coupling has the potential to compensate for reduced cell expansion rates induced by the shift to isotropic growth. Reciprocally, cell wall loosening induced by different treatments or altered cell wall composition promotes a disruption of microtubule alignment. Our data thus indicate the existence of a regulatory module activated during organ outgrowth, linking microtubule arrangements to cell wall remodelling.

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