SHADE AVOIDANCE 4 Is Required for Proper Auxin Distribution in the Hypocotyl
Plant Physiol. 2017, 173(1):788-800
Ge Y, Yan F, Zourelidou M, Wang M, Ljung K, Fastner A, Hammes UZ, Di Donato M, Geisler M, Schwechheimer C, Tao Y

Abstract
The phytohormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Through polar auxin transport, auxin gradients can be established, which then direct plant differentiation and growth. Shade avoidance responses are well-known processes that require polar auxin transport. In this study, we have identified a mutant, shade avoidance 4 (sav4), defective in shade-induced hypocotyl elongation and basipetal auxin transport. SAV4 encodes an unknown protein with armadillo repeat- and tetratricopeptide repeat-like domains known to provide protein-protein interaction surfaces. C terminally yellow fluorescent protein-tagged SAV4 localizes to both the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Membrane-localized SAV4 displays a polar association with the shootward plasma membrane domain in hypocotyl and root cells, which appears to be necessary for its function in hypocotyl elongation. Cotransfection of SAV4 and ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) auxin transporter in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) revealed that SAV4 blocks ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux. We thus propose that polarly localized SAV4 acts to inhibit ABCB-mediated auxin efflux toward shoots and facilitates the establishment of proper auxin gradients.

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