GIP1 protein is a novel cofactor that regulates DNA-binding affinity of redox-regulated members of bZIP transcription factors involved in the early stages of Arabidopsis development
Protoplasma 2015, 252(3):867-883
In response to environmental light signals, gene expression adjustments play an important role in regulation of photomorphogenesis. LHCB2.4 is among the genes responsive to light signals, and its expression is regulated by redox-regulated members of G-group bZIP transcription factors. The biochemical interrelations of GBF1-interacting protein 1 (GIP1) and the G-group bZIP transcription factors have been investigated. GIP1, previously shown to enhance DNA-binding activities of maize GBF1 and Arabidopsis GBF3, is a plant specific protein that reduces DNA-binding activity of AtbZIP16, AtbZIP68, and AtGBF1 under non-reducing conditions through direct physical interaction shown by the yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays. Fluorescence microscopy studies using cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-fusion protein indicate that GIP1 is exclusively localized in the nucleus. Under non- reducing conditions, GIP1 exhibits predominantly high molecular weight forms, whereas it predominates in low molecular weight monomers under reducing conditions. While reduced GIP1 induced formation of DNA-protein complexes of G-group bZIPs, oxidized GIP1 decreased the amount of those complexes and instead induced its chaperone function suggesting functional switching from redox to chaperone activity. Finally analysis of transgenic plants overexpressing GIP1 revealed that GIP1 is a negative co-regulator in red and blue light mediated hypocotyl elongation. By regulating the repression effect by bZIP16 and the activation effect by bZIP68 and GBF1 on LHCB2.4 expression, GIP1 functions to promote hypocotyl elongation during the early stages of Arabidopsis seedling development.
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