Dark-adapted spinach thylakoid protein heterogeneity offers insights into the Photosystem II repair cycle
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1837(9):1463-71
Suorsa M, Rantala M, Danielsson R, Järvi S, Paakkarinen V, Schröder WP, Styring S, Mamedov F, Aro EM

Abstract
In higher plants, thylakoid membrane protein complexes show lateral heterogeneity in their distribution: photosystem (PS) II complexes are mostly located in grana stacks, whereas PSI and ATP synthase are mostly found in the stroma-exposed thylakoids. However, recent research has revealed strong dynamics in distribution of photosystems and their light harvesting antenna along the thylakoid membrane. Here, the dark-adapted spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) thylakoid network was mechanically fragmented and the composition of distinct PSII-related proteins in various thylakoid subdomains was analyzed in order to get more insights into the composition and localization of various PSII subcomplexes and auxiliary proteins during the PSII repair cycle. Most of the PSII subunits followed rather equal distribution with roughly 70 % of the proteins located collectively in the grana thylakoids and grana margins, however, the low molecular mass subunits PsbW and PsbX as well as the PsbS proteins were found to be more exclusively located in grana thylakoids. The auxiliary proteins assisting in repair cycle of PSII were mostly located in stroma-exposed thylakoids, with the exception of TLP18.3, which was more evenly distributed between the grana and stroma thylakoids. The TL29 protein was present exclusively in grana thylakoids. Intriguingly, PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 (PGR5) was found to be distributed quite evenly between grana- and stroma thylakoids, whereas PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE1 (PGRL1) was highly enriched in the stroma thylakoids and practically missing from the grana cores.

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