Fernandez AP, Strand A
Signalling between the organelles and the nucleus
Annual Plant Reviews (2008) 33:307–335

Abstract
The function of the eukaryotic cell depends on regulated and reciprocal communication between its different compartments. This includes the exchange of metabolic intermediates and energy equivalents but also exchange of information. The presence of genes encoding organellar proteins in both the nucleus and theorganelle necessitates tight coordination of expression by the different genomes, and this has led to the evolution of retrograde control. Retrograde (organelle-to-nucleus) signaling coordinates the expression of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins with the metabolic and developmental state of the organelle. Complex net-works of retrograde signals coordinate cellular activities and assist the cell during plant development and stress response.

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