Lindgren D, Danusevicius D, Rosvall O
Balanced forest tree improvement can be enhanced by selecting among many parents but maintaining balance among grandparents
Canadian Journal of Forest Research: 2008 38:2797-2803

Abstract
A model for a balanced tree breeding program that considers genetic gain and cost was used to assess the benefits of increasing the breeding population to allow for a component of among-parent selection while maintaining an equal contribution among grandparents, rather than relaying on within-family selection with an equal parental representation. The scenario used in this study had characteristics similar to those of the phenotypic selection strategy for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Sweden. The results showed that investments in a greater number of parents and families to allow for among-parent selection resulted in a markedly higher genetic gain. The among-parent selection component increased the genetic gain by as much as 70% in a scenario with a high budget and no family creation costs and by as much as 20% in a scenario with a low budget and high family creation costs.

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