Strand Å, Kleine T, Chory J
The Structure and Function of Plastids. Plastid-to-nucleus signalling
Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 2006, Chapter 9, 183-197


The function of the eukaryotic cell depends on the regulated and reciprocal interaction between its different compart¬ments. This includes not only the exchange of energy equivalents but also information. Most information exchange flows from the nucleus to the organelles, because the large majority of genes encoding proteins with organellar function are encoded in the nucleus. Nevertheless, there is evidence that the expression of these genes is regulated by signals originating in the organelles. It is clear that several different plastid processes produce signals influencing nuclear photosynthetic gene expression, and to date the tetrapyrrole Mg-protoporphyrin IX, the redox state of the thylakoid membrane and reactive oxygen species are the best characterized plastid signals. This chapter will describe the tetrapyrrole-mediated pathway in detail, but also discuss plastid-to-nucleus communication during chloroplast development and the interaction between light and plastid signaling pathways.

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