Rampey RA, LeClere S, Kowalczyk M, Ljung K, Sandberg G, Bartel B
A family of auxin-conjugate hydrolases that contributes to free indole- 3- acetic acid levels during Arabidopsis germination
Plant Physiol: 2004 135:978-988
Auxins are hormones important for numerous processes throughout plant growth and development. Plants use several mechanisms to regulate levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), including the formation and hydrolysis of amide-linked conjugates that act as storage or inactivation forms of the hormone. Certain members of an Arabidopsis amidohydrolase family hydrolyze these conjugates to free IAA in vitro. We examined amidohydrolase gene expression using northern and promoter-beta-glucuronidase analyses and found overlapping but distinct patterns of expression. To examine the in vivo importance of auxin-conjugate hydrolysis, we generated a triple hydrolase mutant, ilr1 iar3 ill2, which is deficient in three of these hydrolases. We compared root and hypocotyl growth of the single, double, and triple hydrolase mutants on IAA-Ala, IAA-Leu, and IAA-Phe. The hydrolase mutant phenotypic profiles on different conjugates reveal the in vivo activities and relative importance of ILR1, IAR3, and ILL2 in IAA-conjugate hydrolysis. In addition to defective responses to exogenous conjugates, ilr1 iar3 ill2 roots are slightly less responsive to exogenous IAA. The triple mutant also has a shorter hypocotyl and fewer lateral roots than wild type on unsupplemented medium. As suggested by the mutant phenotypes, ilr1 iar3 ill2 imbibed seeds and seedlings have lower IAA levels than wild type and accumulate IAA-Ala and IAA-Leu, conjugates that are substrates of the absent hydrolases. These results indicate that amidohydrolases contribute free IAA to the auxin pool during germination in Arabidopsis.
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