Keun HC, Ebbels TMD, Antti H, Bollard ME, Beckonert O, Schlotterbeck G, Senn H, Niederhauser U, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK
Analytical reproducibility in H-1 NMR-based metabonomic urinalysis
Chemical Research in Toxicology: 2002 15:1380-1386
Metabonomic analysis of biofluids and tissues utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to toxicity for many xenobiotics. To assess the analytical reproducibility of metabonomic protocols, sample preparation and NMR data acquisition were performed at two sites (one using a 500 MHz and the other using a 600 MHz system) using two identical (split) sets of urine samples from an 8-day acute study of hydrazine toxicity in the rat. Despite the difference in spectrometer operating frequency, both datasets were extremely similar when analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and gave near-identical descriptions of the metabolic responses to hydrazine treatment. The main consistent difference between the datasets was related to the efficiency of water resonance suppression in the spectra. In a 4-PC model of both datasets combined, describing all systematic dose- and time-related variation (88% of the total variation), differences between the two datasets accounted for only 3% of the total modeled variance compared to ca. 15% for normal physiological (pre-dose) variation. Furthermore, 95% correlation (r(2)) between sites, with an analytical error comparable to normal physiological variation in concentration (4-8%). The excellent analytical reproducibility and robustness of metabonomic techniques demonstrated here are highly competitive compared to the best proteomic analyses and are in significant contrast to genomic microarray platforms, both of which are complementary techniques for predictive and mechanistic toxicology. These results have implications for the quantitative interpretation of metabonomic data, and the establishment of quality control criteria for both regulatory agencies and for integrating data obtained at different sites.
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