Savitch LV, Barker-Astrom J, Ivanov AG, Hurry V, Oquist G, Huner NPA, Gardestrom P
Cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana results in incomplete recovery of photosynthetic capacity, associated with an increased reduction of the chloroplast stroma
Planta: 2001 214:295-303
The effects of short-term cold stress and long-term cold acclimation on the light reactions of photosynthesis were examined in vivo to assess their contributions to photosynthetic acclimation to low temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.. All photosynthetic measurements were made at the temperature of exposure: 23 degreesC for non-acclimated plants and 5 degreesC for cold-stressed and cold-acclimated plants. Three-day cold-stress treatments at 5 degreesC inhibited light-saturated rates of CO2 assimilation and O-2 evolution by approximately 75%. The 3-day exposure to 5 degreesC also increased the proportion of reduced QA by 50%, decreased the yield of PSII electron transport by 65% and decreased PSI activity by 31%. In contrast, long-term cold acclimation resulted in a strong but incomplete recovery of light-saturated photosynthesis at 5 degreesC. The rates of light-saturated CO2 and O-2 gas exchange and the in vivo yield of PSII activity under light-saturating conditions were only 35-40% lower, and the relative redox state of QA only 20% lower, at 5 degreesC after cold acclimation than in controls at 23 degreesC. PSI activity showed full recovery during long-term cold acclimation. Neither short-term cold stress nor long-term cold acclimation of Arabidopsis was associated with a limitation in ATP, and both treatments resulted in an increase in the ATP/NADPH ratio. This increase in ATP/NADPH was associated with an inhibition of PSI cyclic electron transport but there was no apparent change in the Mehler reaction activity in either cold-stressed or cold-acclimated leaves. Cold acclimation also resulted in an increase in the reduction state of the stroma, as indicated by an increased total activity and activation state of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase, and increased light-dependent activities of the major regulatory enzymes of the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway. We suggest that the photosynthetic capacity during cold stress as well as cold acclimation is altered by limitations at the level of consumption of reducing power in carbon metabolism.
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