Halperin T, Zheng B, Itzhaki H, Clarke AK, Adam Z
Plant mitochondria contain proteolytic and regulatory subunits of the ATP-dependent Clp protease
Plant Mol Biol: 2001 45:461-468
The proteolytic machinery of plant organelles is largely unknown, although indications so far point to several proteases of bacterial origin. In this study an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA was isolated that encodes a homologue of bacterial ClpX, a molecular chaperone and regulatory subunit of the ATP-dependent, serine-type Clp protease. Computer analysis of the predicted plant ClpX revealed a putative mitochondrial transit peptide at the N-terminus, as well as overall sequence similarity to other eukaryotic ClpX homologues. Specific polyclonal antibodies were made to the Arabidopsis ClpX protein and used to confirm its localization in plant mitochondria. In addition to ClpX, a ClpP protein located in mitochondria was also identified from the numerous ClpP isomers in Arabidopsis. Localization of this nuclear-encoded protein, termed ClpP2, was determined first by its close sequence similarity to mitochondrial ClpP human, and later experimentally using ClpP2-specific antibodies with isolated plant organellar fractions. In Arabidopsis, transcripts for both clpX and clpP2 genes were detected in various tissues and under different growth conditions, with no significant variation in mRNA level (i.e. 2-fold) for each gene between samples. Using beta-casein as a substrate, plant mitochondria were found to possess an ATP-stimulated, serine-type proteolytic activity that could be strongly inhibited by antibodies specific for ClpX or ClpP2, suggesting an active ClpXP protease. The recent discovery of homologous mitochondrial ClpX and ClpP proteins in mammals suggests that this type of protease may be common to multicellular eukaryotes.