Igamberdiev AU, Kleczkowski LA
Implications of adenylate kinase-governed equilibrium of adenylates on contents of free magnesium in plant cells and compartments
Biochem J: 2001 360:225-231
On the basis of the equilibrium of adenylate kinase (AK, EC 18.104.22.168), which interconverts MgATP and free AMP with MgADP and free ADP, an approach has been worked out to calculate concentrations of free magnesium (Mg(2+)), based on concentrations of total ATP, ADP and AMP in plant tissues and in individual subcellular compartments. Based on reported total adenylate contents, [Mg(2+)] in plant tissues and organelles varies significantly depending on light and dark regimes, plant age and developmental stage. In steady-state conditions, [Mg(2+)] in chloroplasts is similar in light and darkness (in the millimolar range), whereas in the cytosol it is very low in the light and increases to about 0.4 mM in darkness. During the dark-to-light transition (photosynthetic induction), the [Mg(2+)] in chloroplasts falls to low values (0.2 mM or less), corresponding to a delay in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. This delay is considered to result from lower activities of Mg-dependent enzymes in the Calvin cycle. In mitochondria, the changes in [Mg(2+)] are similar but smoother. On the other hand, when the transition from light to darkness is considered, an initial increase in [Mg(2+)] occurs in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which may be of importance for the control of key regulatory enzymes (e.g. mitochondrial malic enzyme and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) and for processes connected with light-enhanced dark respiration. A rationale is presented for a possible role of [MgATP]/[MgADP] ratio (rather than [ATP(total)]/[ADP(total)]) as an important component of metabolic cellular control. It is postulated that assays of total adenylates may provide an accurate measure of [Mg(2+)] in plant tissues/cells and subcellular compartments, given that the adenylates are equilibrated by AK.