Moseley J, Quinn J, Eriksson M, Merchant S
The Crd1 gene encodes a putative di-iron enzyme required for photosystem I accumulation in copper deficiency and hypoxia in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
EMBO J: 2000 19:2139-2151
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii adapts to copper deficiency by degrading apoplastocyanin and inducing Cyc6 and Cpx1 encoding cytochrome c(6) and coproporphyrinogen oxidase, respectively. To identify other components in this pathway, colonies resulting from insertional mutagenesis were screened for copper- conditional phenotypes. Twelve crd (copper response defect) strains were identified. In copper-deficient conditions, the crd strains fail to accumulate photosystem I and light-harvesting complex I, and they contain reduced amounts of light-harvesting complex II. Cyc6, Cpx1 expression and plastocyanin accumulation remain copper responsive. The crd phenotype is rescued by a similar amount of copper as is required for repression of Cyc6 and Cpx1 and for maintenance of plastocyanin at its usual stoichiometry, suggesting that the affected gene is a target of the same signal transduction pathway. The crd strains represent alleles at a single locus, CRD1, which encodes a 47 kDa, hydrophilic protein with a consensus carboxylate-bridged di-iron binding site. Crd1 homologs are present in the genomes of photosynthetic organisms. In Chlamydomonas, Crd1 expression is activated in copper- or oxygen-deficient cells, and Crd1 function is required for adaptation to these conditions.
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