Development of somatic embryos in Norway spruce
J. Exp. Bot. 1998, 49(319), 155-162,
Egertsdotter U, von Arnold S

Embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce consist of a large number of somatic embryos. The cell lines have been divided into two groups, A and B. The group B embryos are developmentally blocked. Extracts of mature spruce seeds stimulate group B embryos to develop a morphology comparable to group A embryos. However, seed extract inhibits early embryo development. The active components in seed extract were shown probably to be proteins. Extracts of mature seeds contain chitinase-like proteins as recognized by an antibody towards chitinase 4 in sugar beet. Proteins of similar sizes were detected by the same antibody in the conditioned medium of group A, but not in group B. A chitinase 4-related chitinase and a nod factor had a stimulating effect on early embryo development, but did not influence the later stages of embryo development.

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