Hurry VM, Malmberg G, Gardestrom P, Oquist G
Effects of a Short-Term Shift to Low-Temperature and of Long-Term Cold Hardening on Photosynthesis and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase and Sucrose-Phosphate Synthase Activity in Leaves of Winter Rye (Secale-Cereale L)
Plant Physiology: 1994 106:983-990
The effect of a short-term (hours) shift to low temperature (5 degrees C) and long-term (months) cold hardening on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism was studied in winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer), Cold-hardened plants grown at 5 degrees C exhibited 25% higher in situ CO2 exchange rates than nonhardened plants grown at 24 degrees C. Cold-hardened plants maintained these high rates throughout the day, in contrast to nonhardened plants, which showed a gradual decline in photosynthesis after 3 h. Associated with the increase in photosynthetic capacity following cold hardening was an increase in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and sucrose phosphate synthase activity and 3- to 4-fold increases in the pools of associated metabolites. Leaves of nonhardened plants shifted overnight to 5 degrees C required 9 h in the light at 5 degrees C before maximum rates of photosynthesis were reached. The gradual increase in photosynthesis in leaves shifted to 5 degrees C was correlated with a sharp decline in the 3-phosphoglycerate/triose phosphate ratio and by an increase in the ribulose bisphosphate/3-phosphoglycerate ratio, indicating the gradual easing of aninorganic phosphate-mediated feedback inhibition on photo-synthesis. We suggest that the strong recovery of photosynthesis in winter rye following cold hardening indicates that the buildup of photosynthetic enzymes, as well as those involved in sucrose synthesis, is an adaptive response that enables these plants to maximize the production of sugars that have both cryoprotective and storage functions that are critical to the performance of these cultivars during over-wintering.
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