Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Luthi E, Olsen OA, Preiss J
Insensitivity of Barley Endosperm Adp-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase to 3-Phosphoglycerate and Orthophosphate Regulation
Plant Physiology: 1993 101:179-186
Crude extracts of starchy endosperm from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Bomi) contained high pyrophosphorolytic activity (up to 0.5 mumol of glucose-1-P formed min-1 mg-1 of protein) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) when assayed in the absence of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA). This high activity was observed regardless of whether AGP had been extracted in the presence or absence of various protease inhibitors or other protectants. Western blot analysis using antibodies specific for either the small or large subunit of the enzyme demonstrated that the large, 60-kD subunit was prone to proteolysis in crude extracts, with a half-time of degradation at 4-degrees-C (from 60 to 53 to 51 kD) on the order of minutes. The presence of high concentrations of protease inhibitors decreased, but did not prevent this proteolysis. The small, 51-kD subunit of barley endosperm AGP was relatively resistant to proteolysis, both in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. For the crude, nonproteolyzed enzyme, 3-PGA acted as a weak activator of the ADP-glucose synthetic reaction (about 25% activation), whereas in the reverse reaction (pyrophosphorolysis) it served as an inhibitor rather than an activator. For both the synthetic and pyrophosphorolytic reactions, inorganic phosphate (Pi) acted as a weak competitive or mixed inhibitor of AGP. The relative insensitivity to 3-PGA/Pi regulation has been observed with both the nonproteolyzed crude enzyme and partially purified (over 60-fold) AGP, the latter characterized by two bands for the large subunit (molecular masses of 53 and 51 kD) and one band for the small subunit (51 kD). Addition of 3-PGA to assays of the partially purified, proteolyzed enzyme had little or no effect on the K(m) values of all substrates of AGP, but it reduced the Hill coefficient for ATP (from 2.1 to 1.0). These findings are discussed with respect to previous reports on the structure and regulation of higher plant AGP.
e-link to journal