Gardestrom P
Metabolite Levels in the Chloroplast and Extrachloroplast Compartments of Barley Leaf Protoplasts During the Initial Phase of Photosynthetic Induction
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta: 1993 1183:327-332
Metabolite levels were determined in the chloroplast and extrachloroplast compartments of barley protoplasts during photosynthetic induction using rapid fractionation by membrane filtration. This method allowed studies with a high time resolution the first determination of subcellular metabolite content bring made after only 0.3 s. Upon illumination, dark-adapted protoplasts exhibited a 1 min lag phase prior to commencement of oxygen evolution, and the maximum rate was reached after 4 to 5 min. In contrast to oxygen evolution, the ATP/ADP ratio in the chloroplasts increased from 1 to 2 within 0.5 s and reached a maximum of about 5 after 2 s. There was a dramatic increase in the extrachloroplastic ATP/ADP ratio within a few seconds, reaching a maximum after about 15 s. During the initial phase of photosynthetic induction, the subcellular ATP/ADP ratios were very similar in photorespiratory (low CO,) and non-photorespiratory (high CO,) conditions. The ATP/ADP ratios in both the chloroplast and extrachloroplast compartments remained high until photosynthetic oxygen evolution started and then decreased when the photosynthetic rate reached its maximum. In steady-state photosynthesis the subcellular ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher under photorespiratory conditions as compared to non-photorespiratory conditions. During the initial phase of photosynthetic induction, 3-phosphoglycerate decreased and triose phosphates increased both in the chloroplast and extrachloroplast compartments. The changes in these metabolites are consistent with a 3-phosphoglycerate/triose phosphate shuttle using the phosphate translocator as the means to supply ATP to the cytosol during photosynthetic induction.
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