The absorption of sunlight is the first step in the process of photosynthesis and is performed by a special group of proteins, called antenna proteins. Ligation of chlorophyll to the pigmentbinding proteins is a central step in the assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus. This process is complicated by the facts that i) free chlorophyll has a potentially damaging photooxidative activity in the light and ii) the pigmentbinding proteins are stabilized by chlorophyll, but in the absence of this pigment they are rapidly degraded. Therefore this process has to be highly coordinated, possibly by the use of special pigmentcarrier proteins.
Christiane Funk 1150 766func_1Microscopic picture showing cells of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Their blue-green (cyano) color is a result of the light-harvesting pigments. Blue=phycobilins, green=chlorophyllFunctional photosynthetic complexes only have a short lifespan, as a means of quality control. Turnover of pigmentbinding proteins and changes in the composition of lightharvesting and/or reaction centre pigmentprotein complexes are also the major tools for light adaptation. When the protein is degraded, pigments become free and may damage the cell. Under these conditions, pigmentcarrier proteins are extremely important. A special scenario for protein degradation is leaf senescence, which starts with a decrease in photosynthesis.
Carrier proteins – no matter if they function during assembly of new antenna proteins or during turnover of proteins - should be able to bind pigments transiently; uptake as well as handing over the chlorophylls must also be easy. Photooxidative damage by chlorophyll has to be prevented, either by quenchers like carotenoids or a special protein structure. Therefore, carrier proteins will not have the same features as normal antenna proteins. However, the hypothetical pigmentcarrier proteins known today have high structural homology to the antenna proteins. Despite this similarity, their regulation is very different.
Three model organisms are being studied: the tree Populus trichocarpa, the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Using these organisms, interesting and relevant comparative studies are possible.
sweden_greySvensk sammanfattning

Publication list

  1. Stable accumulation of photosystem II requires ONE-HELIX PROTEIN1 (OHP1) of the light harvesting-like family
    Plant Physiology 2018, 176 (3):2277-2291
  2. The PsbY protein of Arabidopsis Photosystem II is important for the redox control of Cytochrome b559
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 May 21. pii: S0005-2728(16)30536-9 [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Synergy: A Web Resource for Exploring Gene Regulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803
    PLoS One. 2014 Nov 24;9(11):e113496
  4. Metabolomic analysis of extreme freezing tolerance in Siberian spruce (Picea obovata)
    New Phytol. 2014, 204(3):545-555
  5. Family-wide characterization of Matrix Metallo-proteinases from Arabidopsis thaliana reveals their distinct proteolytic activity and cleavage site specificity
    Biochem J. 2013 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Storm P, Tibiletti T, Hall M, Funk C
    Refolding and Enzyme Kinetic Studies on the Ferrochelatase of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    PLoS ONE 2013 8(2):e55569
  7. Miranda H, Cheregi O, Netotea S, Hvidsten TR, Moritz T, Funk C
    Co-expression analysis, proteomic and metabolomic study on the impact of a Deg/HtrA protease triple mutant in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exposed to temperature and high light stress
    J. of Proteomics 2013, 78:94-311
  8. Cheregi O, Vermaas W, Funk C
    The search for new chlorophyll-binding proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    J Biotechnol. 2012 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Roberts IN, Lam XT, Miranda H, Kieselbach T, Funk C
    Degradation of PsbO by the Deg Protease HhoA Is Thioredoxin Dependent
    PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45713 Epub Sep 19
  10. Wagner R, Aigner H, Funk C
    FtsH proteases located in the plant chloroplast
    Physiol Plant. 2012 May;145(1):203-14
  11. Roberts IN, Caputo C, Criado MV, Funk C
    Senescence-associated proteases in plants
    Physiol Plant. 2012 May;145(1):130-9
  12. Mishra Y, Johansson Jankanpaa H, Kiss AZ, Funk C, Schroder WP, Jansson S
    Arabidopsis plants grown in the field and climate chambers significantly differ in leaf morphology and photosystem components
    BMC Plant Biology 2012, 12:6
  13. Marino G, Funk C
    Matrix metalloproteinases in plants: A brief overview
    Physiol Plant: 2012, 145(1):196-202
  14. Lundberg E, Storm P, Schröder WP, Funk C
    Crystal structure of the TL29 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana: An APX homolog without peroxidase activity
    J Struct Biol.: 2011 176(1):24-31
  15. Shi L, Hall M, Funk C, Schröder WP
    Photosystem II, a growing complex: Updates on newly discovered components and low molecular mass proteins
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics: 1817 (2012), pp. 13-25
  16. Ådén J, Wallgren M, Storm P, Weise CF, Christiansen A, Schröder WP, Funk C, Wolf-Watz M
    Extraordinary μs–ms backbone dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana peroxiredoxin Q
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins & Proteomics: 1814, 1880-1890
  17. Funk C, Alami M, Tibiletti T, Green BR
    High light stress and the one-helix LHC-like proteins of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta
    Biochim Biophys Acta.: 2011, 1807(7):841-6
  18. Hernandez-Prieto MA, Tibiletti T, Abasova L, Kirilovsky D, Vass I, Funk C
    The small CAB-like proteins of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: their involvement in chlorophyll biogenesis for Photosystem II
    Biochim Biophys Acta.: 2011, 1807(9):1143-51
  19. Wagner R, Aigner H, Pruzinska A, Jänkänpää HJ, Jansson S, Funk C
    Fitness analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants depleted of FtsH metalloproteases and characterization of three FtsH6 deletion mutants exposed to high light stress, senescence and chilling
    The New Phytologist: 2011, 191:449-458
  20. Huesgen PF, Miranda H, Lam X, Perthold M, Schuhmann H, Adamska I, Funk C
    Recombinant Deg/HtrA proteases from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 differ in substrate specificity, biochemical characteristics and mechanism
    Biochem J.: 2011, 435(3):733-42
  21. Garcia-Cerdán JG, Kovács L, Tóth T, Kereiche S, Avseeva E, Boekema EJ, Mamedov F, Funk C, Schröder WP
    The PsbW protein stabilizes the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in higher plants
    The Plant Journal: 2011 65: 368-381
  22. Granlund I, Storm P, Schubert M, Garcia-Cerdan JG, Funk C, Schröder WP
    The TL29 protein is lumen located associated with Photosystem II and not an ascorbate peroxidase
    Plant and Cell Physiology: 2009 50:1898-1910
  23. Garcia-Cerdin JG, Sveshnikov D, Dewer D., Jansson S, Funk C, Schröder WP
    Antisense inhibition of the PsbX protein affects PSII integrity in higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana
    Plant and Cell Physiology: 2009 50(2):191-202
  24. Storm P, Hernandez-Prieto MA, Eggink LL, Hoober JK, Funk C
    The small CAB-like proteins of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 bind chlorophyll : In vitro pigment reconstitution studies on one-helix light-harvesting-like proteins
    Photosynthesis Research: 2008 98(1-3):479-488
  25. Garcia-Lorenzo M, Zelisko A, Jackowski G, Funk C
    Degradation of the main photosystem II light-harvesting complex
    Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences:2005 4:1065-1071
  26. Sveshnikov D, Funk C, Schröder WP
    The PsbP-like protein (sll1418) of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 stabilises the donor side of Photosystem II
    Photosynthesis Research: 2008 93:101-109
  27. Kufryk G, Hernandez-Prieto MA, Kieselbach T, Miranda H, Vermaas W, Funk C
    Association of small CAB-like proteins (SCPs) of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with Photosystem II

    Photosynthesis Research: 2008 95:135-145
  28. Garcia-Lorenzo M, Sjödin A, Jansson S, Funk C
    Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis
    BMC Plant Biology 2006 6: 30, 24 pp.
  29. Yao D, Kieselbach T, Komenda J, Promnares K, Prieto MAH, Tichy M, Vermaas W, Funk C
    Localization of the Small CAB-like Proeins in Photosystem II
    J Biol Chem 2007 282:267-276
  30. Sveshnikov D, Ensminger I, Ivanov AG, Campbell D, Lloyd J, Funk C, Huner NPA, Oquist G
    Excitation energy partitioning and quenching during cold acclimation in Scots pine
    Tree Physiology: 2006 26:325-336
  31. Demmig-Adams B, Ebbert V, Mellman DL, Mueh KE, Schaffer L, Funk C, Zarter CR, Adamska I, Jansson S, Iii WWA
    Modulation of PsbS and flexible vs sustained energy dissipation by light environment in different species
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2006 127:670-680
  32. Moreau C, Aksenov N, Lorenzo MG, Segerman B, Funk C, Nilsson P, Jansson S, Tuominen H
    A genomic approach to investigate developmental cell death in woody tissues of Populus trees
    Genome Biology: 2005 6:R34
  33. Zelisko A, Garcia-Lorenzo M, Jackowski G, Jansson S, Funk C
    AtFtsH6 is involved in the degradation of the light-harvesting complex II during high-light acclimation and senescence
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: 2005 102:13699-13704-
  34. Ishikawa Y, Schroder WP, Funk C
    Functional analysis of the PsbP-like protein (sll1418) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    Photosynth Res: 2005 84:257-262
  35. Dedic R, Promnares K, Psencik J, Svoboda A, Korinek M, Tichy M, Komenda J, Funk C, Hala J
    Hole burning study of cyanobacterial Photosystem II complexes differing in the content of small putative chlorophyll-binding proteins
    Journal of Luminescence: 2004 107:230-235
  36. Ensminger I, Sveshnikov D, Campbell DA, Funk C, Jansson S, Lloyd J, Shibistova O, Oquist G
    Intermittent low temperatures constrain spring recovery of photosynthesis in boreal Scots pine forests
    Global Change Biology: 2004 10:995-1008
  37. Huang F, Hedman E, Funk C, Kieselbach T, Schroder WP, Norling B
    Isolation of outer membrane of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and its proteomic characterization
    Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: 2004 3:586-595
  38. Xu H, Vavilin D, Funk C, Vermaas W
    Multiple deletions of small Cab-like proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: consequences for pigment biosynthesis and accumulation
    J Biol Chem: 2004 279:27971-27979
  39. Schofield SC, Campbell DA, Funk C, MacKenzie TDB
    Changes in macromolecular allocation in nondividing algal symbionts allow for photosynthetic acclimation in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria
    New Phytologist: 2003 159:709-718
  40. Noren H, Svensson P, Stegmark R, Funk C, Adamska I, Andersson B
    Expression of the early light-induced protein but not the PsbS protein is influenced by low temperature and depends on the developmental stage of the plant in field-grown pea cultivars
    Plant Cell and Environment: 2003 26:245-253
  41. Schubert M, Petersson UA, Haas BJ, Funk C, Schroder WP, Kieselbach T
    Proteome map of the chloroplast lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana (vol 277, pg 8354, 2002)
    Journal of Biological Chemistry: 2003 278:13590-13590
  42. Kieselbach T, Funk C
    The family of Deg/HtrA proteases: from Escherichia coli to Arabidopsis
    Physiologia Plantarum: 2003 119:337-346
  43. Clarke SM, Funk C, Hendry GS, Shand JA, Wydrzynski T, Rye JJE
    Amino acid deletions in the cytosolic domains of the chlorophyll a-binding protein CP47 slow Q(A)- oxidation and/or prevent the assembly of photosystem II
    Plant Mol Biol: 2002 50:563-572
  44. Clarke SM, Funk C, Hendry GS, Shand JA, Wydrzynski T, Eaton-Rye JJ
    Amino acid deletions in the cytosolic domains of the chlorophyll alpha-binding protein CP47 slow Q(A)(-) oxidation and/or prevent the assembly of Photosystem II
    Plant Molecular Biology: 2002 50:563-572
  45. Thidholm E, Lindstrom V, Tissier C, Robinson C, Schroder WP, Funk C
    Novel approach reveals localisation and assembly pathway of the PsbS and PsbW proteins into the photosystem II dimer
    Febs Letters: 2002 513:217-222
  46. Schubert M, Petersson UA, Haas BJ, Funk C, Schroder WP, Kieselbach T
    Proteome map of the chloroplast lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana
    J Biol Chem: 2002 277:8354-8365
  47. Xu H, Vavilin D, Funk C, Vermaas W
    Small Cab-like proteins regulating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803
    Plant Molecular Biology: 2002 49:149-160
  48. Funk C, Wiklund R, Schroder WP, Jansson C
    D1 ' centers are less efficient than normal photosystem II centers
    Febs Letters: 2001 505:113-117
  49. Funk C
    Functional analysis of the PsbX protein by deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803
    Plant Molecular Biology: 2000 44:815-827
  50. Chow WS, Funk C, Hope AB, Govindjee
    Greening of intermittent-light-grown bean plants in continuous light: thylakoid components in relation to photosynthetic performance and capacity for photoprotection
    Indian J Biochem Biophys: 2000 37:395-404
  51. Schoefs B, Bertrand M, Funk C
    Photoactive protochlorophyllide regeneration in cotyledons and leaves from higher plants
    Photochem Photobiol: 2000 72:660-668
  52. Nield J, Funk C, Barber J
    Supermolecular structure of photosystem II and location of the PsbS protein
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences: 2000 355:1337-1343
  53. Funk C, Vermaas W
    A cyanobacterial gene family coding for single-helix proteins resembling part of the light-harvesting proteins from higher plants
    Biochemistry: 1999 38:9397-9404
  54. Vermaas W, Xu H, He QF, Funk C, Paulsen H
    Chlorophyll-binding proteins in cyanobacteria
    Photochemistry and Photobiology: 1999 69:71S-72S
  55. Funk C, Schroder WP, Salih G, Wiklund R, Jansson C
    Engineering of N-terminal threonines in the D1 protein impairs photosystem II energy transfer in Synechocystis 6803
    Febs Letters: 1998 436:434-438
  56. Lindahl M, Funk C, Webster J, Bingsmark S, Adamska I, Andersson B
    Expression of ELIPs and PS II-S protein in spinach during acclimative reduction of the Photosystem II antenna in response to increased tight intensities
    Photosynthesis Research: 1997 54:227-236
  57. Adamska I, Funk C, Renger G, Andersson B
    Developmental regulation of the PsbS gene expression in spinach seedlings: the role of phytochrome
    Plant Mol Biol: 1996 31:793-802
  58. Irrgang KD, Shi LX, Funk C, Schroder WP
    A Nuclear-Encoded Subunit of the Photosystem-Ii Reaction-Center
    Journal of Biological Chemistry: 1995 270:17588-17593
  59. Funk C, Adamska I, Green BR, Andersson B, Renger G
    The Nuclear-Encoded Chlorophyll-Binding Photosystem-Ii-S Protein Is Stable in the Absence of Pigments
    Journal of Biological Chemistry: 1995 270:30141-30147
  60. Funk C, Schroder WP, Napiwotzki A, Tjus SE, Renger G, Andersson B
    The Psii-S Protein of Higher-Plants - a New-Type of Pigment-Binding Protein
    Biochemistry: 1995 34:11133-11141
  61. Funk C, Schroder WP, Green BR, Renger G, Andersson B
    The Intrinsic 22 Kda Protein Is a Chlorophyll-Binding Subunit of Photosystem-Ii
    Febs Letters: 1994 342:261-266